Human Digestive System – What is its Parts, Process, and Function?

Posted on January 12th, 2021

Human Digestive System

Human Digestive System – Parts, Process, and Function

The digestive system of the human body is a set of organs that work together to convert the body into energy. Physiologically, the digestive system is formed along with the gastrointestinal tract, along with the liver, pancreas, and gallbladder. The hollow organs of the gastrointestinal tract (GI tract) include the mouth, stomach, esophagus, small intestine, and large intestine, which contain the rectum and anus.

These include the human digestive system, nutrition, living organisms, and energy use. This is an important process that helps living organisms to obtain energy from various sources. The food we eat needs a lot of processing before it can contain nutrients. This processing is called digestion.

The digestive process involves various accessory organs, organ systems, and the accessory canal. In humans, this process is very simple due to our monogastric nature. This means that unlike other animals like cows, we have a single compartment, of which there are four compartments.

Parts of the nervous and circulatory systems also play an important role in the digestive process. Digestion is a combination of nerves, bacteria, hormones, blood, and other organs of the digestive system.



The digestive system of the human body, along with other basic nutrients, contains a set of organs that convert food into energy and give energy to the body. The food we eat is absorbed and used by our body, and the unused portion of the food becomes polluted.

The digestive system in the human body is the sum of the supporting organs (tongue, liver, pancreas, etc.) of the gastrointestinal tract (also known as the GIT; elemental canal). Together these two components help the digestive process.

Elemental canals are long tubes through which the food we eat passes. It begins in the mouth (education or oral cavity), passes through the trachea, esophagus or esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, and rectum, and finally ends in the anus. The food particles are slowly absorbed as they pass through the various compartments of the primary canal.

Secondary organs are organs that participate in the digestive process but are not actually part of the GIT. They stimulate digestion by releasing certain enzymes that help break down food.

The digestive system of the human body can be examined in detail with its parts and functions:


Food begins its journey from the mouth or the oral cavity. There are many other organs that contribute to the digestive process, including the teeth, salivary glands, and tongue. The teeth are designed to grind food into small pieces, and the tongue is moistened with saliva before the food is pushed into the trachea.



A fibromuscular y-shaped tube attached to the terminal end of the mouth. This involves the passage of chewed/chewed food from the mouth into the esophagus. It plays an important role in the respiratory system as air travels from the nasal cavity to the lungs through the trachea.



It is a muscular tube that connects the upper part of the gastrointestinal tract to the trachea. Swallowed food is distributed throughout its length.



It acts as a muscle bag located on the left side of the abdominal cavity, just below the diaphragm. This vital organ serves as a storehouse of food and provides ample time for food to be absorbed. The stomach produces digestive enzymes and hydrochloric acid and maintains the digestive process.

i. Mucus: It is an aqueous secretion produced by the mucous membrane. It works by protecting the stomach and gastric cavities from acids, which are produced by the glands to destroy the bacteria that enter with the food particles.

ii. Digestive enzymes: are groups of enzymes that break down biopolymers, such as polymer macromolecules, into smaller and simpler substances.

iii. Hydrochloric acid: This is a digestive fluid that is formed by the stomach during the digestive process. It works by destroying harmful microorganisms contained in food particles.



The small intestine is a thin elongated tube about 10 feet long, which is part of the lower intestine. It is located just behind the abdomen, reaching the maximum area of ​​the abdominal cavity. The entire small intestine is folded and there are folds and ridges on the inner surface.



It is a long tube about 5 feet thick. It is located just below the abdomen and wraps around the upper and lateral edges of the small intestine. It contains bacteria (symbiosis) that help absorb water and break down waste products that carry small amounts of nutrients.



The waste enters the end of the large intestine, called the rectum, and is expelled from the body in the form of solid feces. It is stored in the rectum in the form of semi-solid feces and then exits the body through the anus.




It is a large gland located just behind the stomach. It is small with its anterior part with the duodenum and the posterior point on the left side of the abdominal cavity. The pancreas releases digestive enzymes to complete the chemical digestive process.



The liver is an almost triangular, reddish-brown secondary part of the digestive system located on the right side of the stomach. It produces bile, which helps in the absorption of fat in the small intestine. The gallbladder is stored in the gallbladder and reused. It is a small pear-shaped organ located close to the liver.





The digestive process begins in the mouth and ends in the small intestine – the main function of the large intestine is to absorb the remaining water from unwanted foods and enable bacterial fermentation of an indigestible substance.

It is a series of hollow organs and tubes that begin in the oral cavity and continue into the trachea, ending in the primary canal or small intestine, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, and finally the anus. Food particles are slowly absorbed as they travel through the various compartments of the gastrointestinal tract.


The digestive process occurs in the following stages.


The first stage involves mastication (chewing). The salivary glands, along with the tongue, help to moisturize and lubricate food before pushing it down the food pipe.



It involves lubricating and handling food and pushing food into the stomach (using peristalsis) into the stomach.



The stomach, small intestine, liver, and pancreas secrete enzymes and acids that aid in the digestive process. It works by making food particles into simpler components and easily absorbed.



It is the process of converting complex food particles into simple substances in the presence of enzymes and acids secreted by various digestive organs.



This process begins in the small intestine, where nutrients and minerals are absorbed. In the case of indigestion, excess water will be absorbed by the large intestine.



It is the process of removing impurities and impurities from the body through the process of decontamination.

In short, there are six stages in the digestive process:

Inclusion ⇒ Mixture and Movement ⇒ Secretion ⇒ Digestion Absorption ⇒ Extension



Vomiting: This is the rejection of the contents of the stomach through the mouth.

Diarrhea: This is an abnormally watery bowel movement. Prolonged diarrhea eventually leads to dehydration.

Constipation: A condition in which the stool is blocked inside the rectum due to irregular bowel movements.

Indigestion: Abdominal pain or discomfort caused by improper absorption of food, resulting in fullness. Insufficiency is mainly due to enzyme secretion, food poisoning, anxiety, overeating, and spicy eating.



Digestion and absorption are the two main functions of the system.

Digestion is needed to break down food particles into nutrients that the body uses as an energy source and for cell repair and growth.

Food and drink need to be converted into smaller molecules of nutrients before they can be absorbed into the bloodstream and after that carried to cells throughout the body. The body breaks down the nutrients in drinks and food into carbohydrates, vitamins, fats and proteins.



i. The human digestive system breaks down food to release the energy needed for the body to function.

ii. The digestive process takes place in 6 main stages.

iii. The food is eaten through the elemental canal and poured through the body for further processing.

iv. The autonomic nervous system regulates peristalsis, contraction, and muscle relaxation within the elemental canal wall.

v. Food and nutrients is absorbed in the small intestine.

vi. Water, electrolytes, and vitamins are absorbed by the large intestine and polluted.



It decreases the function of the human digestive system.

The digestive system consists of accessory canals and supporting organs. Their main function is to break down the food they eat into its components and produce the nutrients and energy needed to sustain life.


What are small organs?

Secondary organs are organs that are not part of the digestive system; however, they also perform secondary functions and aid the digestive process. The tongue, liver, pancreas, and gallbladder are the major organs of the digestive system.


Underline the digestive process step by step.

The digestive process involves the following steps, namely:

i. Bribery

ii. Mixed and agitated

iii. Discharge

iv. Digestion

v. Absorption

vi. Excretion

vii. List the parts of the digestive system.

viii. Mouth and Education Room

ix. Food in the stomach

x. Esophagus

xi. Stomach

xii. Small intestine

xiii. Rectum


Explain the role of the tongue as a supporting organ.

The tongue is not part of the digestive system, but it does provide supportive functions such as moving and managing food within the education chamber. In addition, moisturizing the food allows it to be swallowed and passed through the esophagus without much resistance.

Takshila Learning explains the process of digestion to the students with the help of video tutorials which are easy to be followed and understood. These animated video lectures are mapped according to the CBSE syllabus of Class 9 & Class 10. The students can get a good grasp of these topics and it stays registered in the minds of the learners. The visual input and related explanations serve as a great stimulus for active learners and generate their curiosity.

Takshila Learning helps you with the digestive elements of education in school


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Tag – Digestive System; Human Digestive System; Parts of the Digestive System; Function of the Digestive System; Digestive System organs; digestive process; Accessory Organs; small organs; school online classes; class 10 science;


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