**Prism, Dispersion of Light, and Refraction**

**What is a prism?**

**A prism** is a three-dimensional solid object in which both ends are equal. It is a combination of flat faces, equal bases, and similar cross-sections. The faces of the prisms are basically parallel or rectangular. The base of a prism can be triangles, squares, rectangles or any one-way polygon. For example, a pentagon prism has two pentagon bases and 5 rectangular faces.

**What is Prism shape?**

The prism has a solid shape with two equal edges (a triangle, a square, a rectangle, etc.), a flat face or surface. Because the cross-section is similar to a triangle, it is called a triangular prism. There is no manure in the shape of a prism. Therefore, a prism may have square, rectangular, pentagon, and other polygon shapes, but not circular ones.

**How many types of prisms are?**

Based on the cross-section, the prism is named. It is of two kinds.;

**Regular prism**

If the bases of a prism are in the shape of a normal polygon, it is called a normal prism.

**Irregular prism**

If the bases are in the shape of a random polygon, the prism is called an irregular prism.

**Prisms based on shape contours**

Depending on the size of the bases, they are divided into different types;

**1. Triangular prism (triangular base)**

**2. Square prism (square base)**

**3. Rectangular prisms (rectangular base)**

**4. Pentagon Prism (Pentagon Base)**

**5. Hexagon Prism (Hexagon Base)**

**What are the surface area and the volume of a prism?**

1. The surface area of a prism is the area of all its faces.

2. The volume of a prism is defined as the total space occupied by a three-dimensional object. Mathematically, it is defined as the product of the area and length of the base.

**What is the formula of the prism (surface area and volume)?**

- The formulas define the surface area and volume of the prism. Because the prism is a three-dimensional shape, it has two properties: surface area and volume.

Rainbows, aren’t they beautiful? Have you ever wondered how to make a rainbow? It is a simple physical phenomenon called diffusion of light. So, what is the diffusion of light?

**What is Dispersion?**

- The scattering of white light across the entire spectrum of wavelengths.

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**What is Refraction?**

It is the bending of a wave as it passes from one medium to another. The density difference between the two materials is curved.

**Refraction of light** is one of the most common phenomena, but refraction in sound waves and water waves is also experienced in other waves. Optical devices such as magnifying glasses, lenses, and prisms allow us to refract. **Light** can be focused on our retina by the refraction of light.

Statistical Depression is how much numeric data can differ from an average value. In other words, scattering helps to understand data distribution.

**What is the refraction of light?**

When white light passing through a prism, white light splits into seven component colors. Prism is a transparent optical element on light and reflective flat and polished surfaces. The change in the direction of propagation of light as it passes through different media is called the refraction of light.

**What is the dispersion of light?**

When white light passes through a prism, it splits into a spectrum of its colors (violet, indigo, blue, green, yellow, orange, and red, respectively) into white light. Its splitting process is called scattering.

The simplest way to explain scattering is to scatter in a prism.

__Refraction of light through a prism__

__Refraction of light through a prism__

**How does light differ through the glass prism?**

As light travels from one medium to another, its propagation speed changes, resulting in it ‘bending’ or ‘refracting’. Now when light passes through a prism it turns to the bottom of the triangle. The refraction of light through a prism is well illustrated in the figure above.

Therefore, the bending speed of all of them varies depending on this wavelength, where violet bends the most, red the shortest wavelength and red has the shortest wavelength.

For this reason, white light diffuses into its pale colors when refracted through prisms.

__Visible light spectrum__

**Why light in a prism divides into a spectrum of its colors, but not into a glass slab?**

In fact, light spreads across the spectrum of colors on a glass slab. If we look in a particular way we can see it. You should know something about refractive indices before we proceed. They do not exist permanently. They vary according to the frequency and wavelength of light.

Now, for white light to pass through a glass slab or through glass, it is not once, but twice. It moves first from the air to the glass and then from the glass to the air. In the first case of refraction, it slows down, in the second it straightens?

So what happens to a glass slab? All light rays are slow and move at the same rate because both surfaces are parallel. So, to an observer, the white light seems to have entered and exited the slab. But the case is different in a prism.

The surfaces are not parallel to each other, so the light rays emitted from the prism eventually follow the path of separation from each other, giving a scattering effect.

**Download** **NCERT Solutions** **Class 10 Science Chapter 10 Light Reflection and Refraction**

**What is the significance of light scattering in the spectrum of colors?**

Newton was the first to perform this experiment when light passed through a prism. He allowed sunlight to pass through the prism in the hope that it would place white light on the other side of the screen, and instead, saw the spectrum of light after scattering. He had a small hint of the importance here, but to confirm it, he decided to do something else here.

Apparently, the light beam was removed and no further scattered.

Therefore, they realized that different colors of the spectrum of light bend differently because they have different wavelengths. He said that because of the short and long wavelengths, violet has the lowest and reddest nods.

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